08/04/2012 at 11:50 AM
660-670, China: First example of printing on paper. Early xylography was accomplished with hemp paper and woodblocks.
These 22 cards depict Buddhist masters, individuals who are adepts at meditation and ritual. This particular set of initiation cards has been carbon-dated to 1174-1293 CE. These cards, called Tsakli or Tsagli, continue to be used by Tibetan monks as a way of carrying liturgical traditions around with them.
Like other Tsakli, these were printed objects. I do not claim that the Tsagli are the ancestors of the Tarot. However, they have a great deal to teach us, as another example of how cards might be used.
Even though these are not a direct ancestor of the Tarot, they are important to scholars of the Tarot as an ethnographic example of cards being used for initiation. In this case, the meanings of the cards are well known and overt; a description of the card is printed on the back of each one.
I have seen no evidence that Tsagli are or were used in divination, but they are certainly used in the performance of spells. Many of them represent spirits or deities to whom one might make offering, while many others represent the offerings themselves.
Interestingly, the offerings and deities often take shapes of things found in either Persian or Indian playing cards, such as decorative wands, slaves, grotesque heads, buddhas, crowns, mandalas, bolts of cloth, cups, bowls, and swords.